Hot Water Commercial And Industrial Heater Buying Guide
Fan Forced Hot Water and Steam Unit Heaters for Commercial and Industrial Spaces.
Hot water and steam unit heaters are perfect for heating all types and sizes of commercial and industrial spaces. Unit sizes range from 11,300 BTU/HR to 952,000 BTU/HR.
The hot water or steam from your boiler flows through a radiator coil and an electric fan pushes air through the radiator coil. The air entering the coil absorbs the heat from the water or steam, resulting in a warmer discharge air temperature. The cooler water or condensate leaving the coil returns back to the boiler to be reheated for another pass through the radiator coil.
Benefits of fan forced hot water and steam unit heaters in Commercial and Industrial Spaces:
• Clean heat, no odors, no by-products of combustion to vent.
• No open flame to worry about.
• No messy fuel oil to contend with.
• Several units can be spaced strategically for zoning unique areas.
• Easy maintenance.
• Very reliable. The only moving part is the motor and fan assembly. If a motor fails, it is very simple to replace.
• The fan speed can be adjusted on many models. This allows you to dial in the perfect airflow.
• Low clearance requirements on units with side piping connections.
• Horizontal units have adjustable louvers to help direct warm air where you need it most.
• Durable. All unit casings are treated for corrosion resistance and finished with a gray-green baked-on, high solids paint.
• Compact and lightweight for simple installation.
• Tapped holes in the units casing allow for simple suspension using inexpensive threaded rod.
• Large electrical junction boxes allow for simple power wiring.
• Huge range of sizes to match the heater to your heating load. If selected properly, you don’t have to worry about under or over sizing.
• Custom offerings such as explosion proof motors, epoxy coatings and high pressure tubes.
• The fan can run in the Summer to help circulate air.
Drawbacks of fan forced hot water and steam unit heaters in commercial and industrial spaces:
• Water or steam in a cold facility can easily freeze if there is a failure.
• A centralized boiler system is required. If your boiler is down, the heater will not produce heat.
• Hot water or steam piping is required to distribute the heat from your boiler to the hot water or steam unit heater.
• Controls can be slightly more complex due to the integration of your boiler and the unit heater. See the commonly asked questions section for typical control sequences.
• Fan forced units move large volumes of air which can kick up dust in your commercial or industrial space.
Hot water and steam unit heaters come in horizontal or vertical models. The "horizontal" or "vertical" describes the direction of airflow. A "horizontal" unit heater is typically placed along a wall and blows warm air into the space. A "vertical" unit heater is typically placed along a ceiling and blows warm air vertically down into the space. Vertical unit heaters are typically used in very large spaces where fewer heaters are desired. Horizontal units are typically used in spaces where the exterior walls will be blanketed with warm air.
There are several modifications available. Horizontal and vertical unit heaters are available with "power throw" high CFM fans, high pressure tubes, low outlet temperatures (for high steam pressure applications), special motors and custom coatings. These modifications typically add a few weeks to the standard lead times. Call us for information about customizing a unit to meet your specific needs.
1) Suspend the unit heater using threaded rods that thread into the self tapping holes located on the unit heaters casing.
2) Install hot water or steam piping from your boiler or wood furnace to the unit heater.
3) Wire the main power to the hot water or steam unit heater’s fan motor.
4) Install controls.
Commonly Asked Questions:
1) How do I calculate the heating load for my industrial or commercial space?
ANSWER: Call us or use our simple heat load calculator. Do NOT fall for equipment that is advertised as "will heat up to 1000 square feet". Heating a 1000 square foot insulated warehouse in Florida is a lot different then heating a 1000 square foot un-insulated metal warehouse in Maine. 1 heater can not magically service both 1000 square foot spaces. Call us; we are happy to run a detailed engineering calculation that will help you pick the perfect heater for your space. You do not want to under size, and you do not want to oversize.
2) How do I control my hot water or steam unit heater in my industrial or commercial space?
ANSWER: If there is always hot water or steam running through the coil, you can simply use a switch to turn the fan motor on and off when you are using your commercial or industrial space. Automatic control is preferred over manual control. There are 3 common methods for automatically controlling a hot water or steam unit heater in a commercial or industrial space:
Common Control Sequences
The following control sequence descriptions are typical for steam/hot water unit heaters in commercial and industrial applications:
Intermittent Fan Operation - Hot Coil
When a room thermostat calls for heat, the motor is energized. Hot water or steam is continuously supplied to the unit heater, even when the motor is not running. When the thermostat is satisfied, the motor is de-energized.
Continuous Fan Operation - Intermittent Hot/Cold Coil
When a room thermostat calls for heat, a valve is opened, allowing steam or hot water to enter the unit heater. When the thermostat is satisfied, the valve is closed. The fan runs continuously.
Intermittent Fan Operation - Intermittent Hot/Cold Coil
When a room thermostat calls for heat, the motor is energized. At the same time, a valve is opened allowing steam or hot water to enter the unit heater. An aquastat may be attached to the supply or return piping to prevent fan operation until the coil is adequately heated to avoid cold air delivery. When the thermostat is satisfied, the valve closes and the motor is de-energized.
3) How do I determine how much heat a hot water or steam unit heater will generate with varying entering hot water or steam temperatures?
ANSWER: The major hot water and steam unit heater manufacturers rate their capacities using 2 psi steam. For example, a Modine model HSB33 will produce 33,000 BTUs when it is hooked up to 2 PSI steam. Another example: A Sterling model HS120 will produce 120,000 BTUs when hooked up to 2 PSI steam. Since you are most likely using hot water or a different steam pressure in your commercial or industrial space, you need to know how much heat you will get out of the unit with your unique operating conditions. Call us. Within minutes we can tell you the exact output for every sized heater under any condition. Do not fall for advertisements that claim "290,000 BTUs!". A size 290 unit heater will produce 290,000 BTUs ONLY if it is supplied with 2 PSI steam. If you are using 160F water, this same heater will produce 152,000 BTUs, almost half the capacity as shown on the advertisement.
4) Can hot water unit heaters be used with outdoor wood furnaces?
ANSWER: Absolutely. The coil doesn’t care where the hot water comes from. As long as the water is warmer then the air, the unit heater will transfer heat from the water into the space.
5) What are the different piping configurations on hot water and steam unit heaters?
ANSWER: The most common hot water or steam unit heater for a commercial or industrial space is the horizontal model. By selecting several smaller horizontal units, you can blanket all exterior walls with warm air. This results in a very comfortable space. Most major manufacturers offer side piping and top and bottom piping arrangements on horizontal units. The side piping connection models allow you to install the heaters closer to the ceiling. The top and bottom piping connection models allow you to easily rotate the unit if you need to change the direction it is pointing. Both configurations can be used with hot water or steam. The top and bottom units are better suited for use with steam.
6) What is the best location in my commercial or industrial space to install my hot water or steam unit heater?
ANSWER: The unit heater in your commercial or industrial space should be located in the coldest area, and it should be angled slightly so it blankets warm air across the coldest wall. There are several accessories available that will attach to the unit heater to help direct the airflow to specific locations. Here are a few sketches showing typical applications using multiple horizontal and vertical unit heaters:
7) What is the best location to install a wall mounted thermostat in my commercial or industrial space?
ANSWER: The thermostat should be mounted in a location that represents a good average temperature in your commercial or industrial space. If it is located in a cold spot, it will falsely run the unit heater more then it should. If it is located in an area that receives direct sunlight, it will falsely run the unit heater less then it should. A well insulated interior wall is the best spot for the thermostat.
8) What is an aquastat?
ANSWER: An aquastat gets strapped on to the supply or return hot water or steam pipe. It gets wired in series with the fan motor. The aquastat will only allow the fan to run when there is hot water or steam running through the pipes. This inexpensive device will prevent cold air from circulating throughout your commercial or industrial space when the suppl pipes are cold.
9) What kind of sound can I expect from a hot water or steam unit heater?
ANSWER: While sound is created anytime fans and motors are used to move air, Modine unit heaters were designed to minimize their sound level through the careful selection of motors, fan blades and the design of the air intake opening. The information below shows typical types of buildings or rooms with a corresponding Sound Class rating. For a unit heater with a given Sound Class rating, when placed in the type of building or room shown below, the sound of the unit heater will be relatively comparable to the ambient sound level of all sounds within that type of building or room. When purchasing a unit heater, ask for the the sound class rating to be sure you are buying something that will fit your application.
Sound Class Ratings
Type of Building or Room Sound Class Rating
Apartments, Classrooms, Court Rooms, Executive Offices, Hospitals, Libraries, Museums: Class I
General Offices, Hotel Dining Rooms, Recreation Rooms, Show Rooms, Small Stores: Class II
Bank Lobbies, Grocery Stores, Gymnasiums, Post Offices, Restaurants, Service Stations: Class III
Factories, Foundries, Machine Shops, Packing Plants, Shipping Platforms: Class II-VII
Forge Shops, Steel Fabricating Shops, Boiler Works: Class VII
10) How can I compare the cost of heating my commercial or industrial space with different types of unit heaters?
ANSWER: Call us. We will first run a heat load analysis, and then we can run an energy comparison analysis based on your local fuel rates.